Nutrition

Satiety

Occurs in your digestive tract–specifically, in your intestines. When you’ve digested and absorbed enough calories and nutrients to satisfy your body’s needs, hormones signal to your brain that “I am well nourished now,” which decreases your desire for more food. Satiety can’t be fooled or faked, as it is dependent on the actual nutrition in your food. But since digestion is slow, these signals may take several hours to be transmitted, which means they can’t do a very good job all by themselves to keep you from overeating.  This is where satiation comes in.

Satiation

Is regulated in the brain and provides more timely motivation to stop eating. It’s based on the taste, smell, and texture of food, the perception of “fullness”, even your knowledge of how many calories are in a meal. As you eat, you perceive various sensations (“This is delicious,” “I shouldn’t be eating this whole bag” or “I’m getting pretty full”), all of which send your brain status updated to help you determine whether you still want more. But unlike satiety, satiation is an estimate dependant on your perceptions, not an absolute measurement.

Prime Rib VS Oreos:

  • These scientifically designed foods artificially concentrate highly palatable flavors (sweet, fatty, and salty) that stimulate our pleasure centers with a far bigger “hit” than we could ever get from nature.
  • This processing removes any nutrition once found in the food but still leaves all the calories.
  • The final concoction (we can’t really call it “food” at this point) offers a staggering variety of over-the-top flavor sensations in every single bite – but your body knows there is no nutrition there, so you continue to want more food, even PAST the point of fullness.

Grains AND LEGUMES:

Let us begin with grains and legumes… and with evolution and natural selection. Plants are living things, organisms which need to adapt in order to thrive in their environment. Thriving equates to survival and the production of offspring. For plants that means going to seed and producing more plants. Vegetables and fruits have very durable seeds. They can be ingested by animals, then deposited onto the ground in the animal’s waste material. From there, some of the seeds go on to become plants which produce vegetables or fruit, and seeds. The cycle goes on. Grains and legumes, however, are different. The grains and the legumes are, in and of themselves, the ‘seeds’. They are not very durable, and cannot withstand a trip through a digestive tract unharmed. This means that once eaten and deposited with waste material, they can no longer produce a new plant and continue the cycle of life. That is where evolution steps in. The grains and legumes we have today are the ones which were able to adapt to their environment in order to survive and reproduce.

These grains and legumes eaten today did not survive because they grew more durable seeds; they survived because they produce a whole host of chemicals which are not agreeable to being eaten. People who eat grains and legumes are ingesting lectins, phytates, gluten and similar unfriendly proteins. Consumption of grains and legumes by humans can produce some very negative effects: damage to the gut lining; inflammation; insulin resistance; anemia; bone density issues; autoimmune disease; and overall health.

DAIRY:

One word: lactose. Even if you are not someone who is affected by obvious lactose-intolerance, avoiding the consumption of lactose can bring health benefits to you. Many human bodies produce the enzyme lactase for the first couple years of life only. Lactase allows babies and toddlers to properly digest milk, because mammals are born to drink milk in infancy. Adults who no longer produce lactase will have issues with digestion of the lactose in milk. Another problem with dairy is the high carbohydrate count. This can produce issues related to insulin control and weight gain. All of this, and we have not yet even covered the fact that most milk available in stores today comes from cows who have been fed a grain-based diet… along with a lot of antibiotics and hormones. Do yourself a favor and opt for almond milk instead.

Sugar and Sweeteners:

  • Aspartame (Equal) and Stevia are 200 to 300 times sweeter than table sugar.
  • Sucralose (Splenda) is 600 times sweeter than table sugar
  • Saccharin (Sweet’N Low) is up to 700 times sweeter than table sugar.

Ditch The Juicer:    

  • First, liquid calories aren’t as satiating as real food, and as we’ve learned, less satiety equal eating more.
  • Second, when you juice fruit, you’re removing all the fiber, which would normally slow the absorption of the sugar in whole fruit. More sugar in your bloodstream faster is not a good thing when you’re still struggling with fat-loss.
  • Third, many of the naturally occurring nutrients are lost during the processing.
  • Eating vitamin-enriched foods does not provide the same benefits as eating the whole. Unprocessed food. Just eat the fruit

 Guidelines When Buying Grain-fed Animal Proteins:

  • First, buy the leanest cut possible, and trim or drain all the visible fat.
  • By purchasing lean cuts of conventionally-raised meat and removing all visible fat, you can reduce your exposure to these potentially injurious substances.
  • Different meats contain different vitamins and minerals, so the more you rotate the foods you eat, the better chance you’ll have of getting the full complement of micronutrients that make you healthier. If you don’t like certain types of meat, that’s OK – there are still plenty of options for you.

Build Your Plate: PROTEIN

  • Create each meal around your protein source.
  • Each meal should include one to two palm-size servings of protein.
  • As often as possible, choose high-quality meat, seafood, and eggs.
  • Eat the whole egg. Half the protein is in the yolk, so don’t only eat the whites.

Build Your Plate: VEGETABLES

  • Fill the rest of your plate with vegetables.
  • Eat a wide variety of vegetables daily to ensure a wide range or micronutrients. Make sure to include some of the most nutrient-dense options with each meal for maximum benefit.
  • We don’t care how you purchase your veggies (fresh, frozen, cooked, or raw) only that you eat them.
  • There are vegetables that are both nutrient-dense and carbohydrate-dense. If you are healthy and active make sure to add some carb-dense veggies to your diet. Post workout is recommended to support your activity levels. If you are overweight and insulin resistant, you don’t want to fill your whole plate with mashed sweet potatoes, because your metabolism isn’t good at managing energy. In this case use carb-dense veggies in smaller portions, and fill the rest of your plate with leafy greens or other nutrient-dense veggies.

Build Your Plate: FRUIT

  • Start with one to two servings of fruit a day.
  • A serving is about the size of a fist.
  • Don’t start your morning with fruit.
  • Remember, fructose (one of the sugars found in fruit) must be processed by your liver. Large amounts of fruit in one standing can put a burden on your liver, especially if you’re still working through insulin resistance or obesity.
  • Don’t drink it, and don’t make a meal of it all by itself.

Build Your Plate: HEALTHY FATS

  • Choose one or more fat sources per meal.
  • Add fats in the following recommended quantities, per person, per meal.
  • All oils: (olive oil, coconut oil, etc.): one to two thumb-size portions. (a tablespoon)
  • All butters: (coconut butter, nut butters, clarified butter, and ghee): one to two thumb-sized portions.
  • Olives: one to two open (heaping) handfuls.
  • Coconut (meat/flakes): one to two open (heaping) handfuls.
  • Nuts and seeds: up to one closed handful.
  • Avocado: half to one avocado.
  • Coconut milk: between ¼ – ½ of a (14 oz.) can
  • Feel free to add more than our recommended quantities depending on your health standing, but never add less.

Cravings VS. Hunger

It can be easy to confuse cravings for actual hunger, but we’ve got a quick-and-easy approach to differentiating between the two. Simply ask yourself, “Am I hungry enough to eat steamed fish and broccoli?”  If the answer is no, then you’re not really hungry; you’ve just got a craving. So go for a walk, phone a friend, or drink a glass of water and ride it out. If the answer is yes, then you’re definitely hungry – so go eat something!

Now You Understand WHAT Your Body Needs:

  • 1. You have been developing a new relationship with food: spending time with your meals, chewing thoroughly, enjoying each bite, and paying attention.
  • 2. You have been filling your plate with Good Food: food that isn’t going to mess with your mind, or your hormones.
  • 3. You will be able to trust the messages your body is sending you.

Evaluating Your Hunger:

  • Eat slowly, chew thoroughly, and relax while digesting.
  • Then, evaluate fifteen to twenty minutes later. Are you still hungry? If you are, eat more – particularly, more PROTEIN and more FAT.
  • Then, evaluate your hunger levels, energy levels, and general mood in the hours before your next meals. Are you ravenously hungry an hour before dinnertime? Did your energy level fade? Were you cranky, foggy, and tired? If so, then your next meal needs to be bigger right from the start.

Pre-Workout:

Your pre-workout “snack” is not fuel for your workout! You’ve got tens of thousands of calories stored in your body—plenty to support your activity. Your pre-workout food simply sends a signal to your body to prepare it for activity that is coming. Eat fifteen to seventy-five minutes before your workout, choosing foods that are easily digestible and palatable—the timing is highly variable and depends on what your gastrointestinal tract can tolerate before physical activity. Focus on protein and fat and avoid lots of fruit or carb-dense vegetable. Remember, elevated insulin levels undermine glucagon’s energy-access function—and you need your energy stores during a training session. A pre-workout snack might be: two hard-boiled eggs, some deli turkey and a small handful of macadamia nuts, or a few strips of beef jerky. If you exercise first thing in the morning, a little something is better than nothing, so do the best you can.

Post-Workout:

Your post-workout meal is a special “bonus meal” designed to help you start your recovery process faster and more effectively. After you train, your muscles and connective tissue need protein, and your glycogen stores may need replenishing. Eat your post-workout meal ASAP—ideally, within fifteen to thirty minutes of training. Bring it to the gym or competition site! Have a meal—size serving of easily digestible protein and add carbohydrate in the form of starchy vegetables based on your activity level and health status. Fruit is not your best choice here. Fructose—rich fruit will preferentially replenish liver glycogen, but your muscles did all the hard work. A good post-workout meal might be: chicken breast and sweet potato, salmon and butternut squash, or egg whites mixed into mashed pumpkin. Eat a normal meal sixty to ninety minutes after your post-workout meal.

All high-intensity exercisers need protein post-workout, but whether to include carbohydrate depends on the type of activity and metabolic status. If you are lean, muscular, healthy (insulin sensitive),  and performance oriented, you have a totally different context than someone who is over-weight, metabolically deranged, and trying to get back on track with his or her health. For that reason, we recommend following the “post—workout carb curve,” which accounts for both your particular health status and the type and duration of activity.

  • Duration: On the left side of the chart, find the number that corresponds to the total duration of the high-intensity portion of your exercise session. If you were at the gym for an hour, but spent only twelve minutes actually working hard, then 12 is your number.
  • Health Status: Identify where your current state of health lies along the spectrum at the bottom of the chart. It’s subjective, but it’s just a conceptual guideline.
  • Post-Workout Carb Intake: Use those two coordinates to plot the point that determines the approximate amount of carbohydrate you should consume after each high-intensity training session.

If your health status is towards the left end of the continuum, perhaps just starting to exercise and eat healthier, restoring your health takes priority over fueling your athletic performance. In that case, we don’t think you need carbohydrate post-workout, regardless of the duration of your high-intensity activity. You have thousands of calories stored in your body already, and adding a bunch of carbs in any one sitting isn’t the smartest hormonal strategy when you’re already insulin resistant. Therefore, your post-workout meal should include only protein.

If you are closer to the lean, healthy, performance-oriented end of the spectrum, you’ll need to start replenishing calories (and glycogen stores) after even short-duration activity to maintain performance levels and muscle mass. Follow our recommendations and include both protein and varying levels of carbohydrate in your post-workout window.

Fish Oils:

Remember, EPA and DHA are specific types of polysaturated omega-3 fatty acids. Your body cannot produce them—you must get them from food or supplements. If you’re eating lots of grass-finished meat and wild-caught, cold water fish (like salmon or mackerel), you may not need to supplement with fish oil at all. However, if your meat quality isn’t perfect, or you frequently dine out or travel (and are exposed to omega-6-rich seed oils in restaurant cooking), you may want to consider a daily dose of fish oil.

General recommendations: 2 to 4 grams of EPA + DHA daily.

Stronger Faster Healthier is a great brand:

  • It’s highly concentrated, with almost three grams of EPA and DHA in just one teaspoon.
  • The ingredients are 100 percent natural—no sugar or unhealthy additives.
  • The taste isn’t bad compared to most other fish oils.

What To Expect

Days 1 to 7:

The first week will be tough as your body heals and adjusts to this new way of eating and your brain wraps itself around going without all its habitual sweet tastes and sugar-driven energy spikes. In addition, the reward, pleasure, and emotional connections to supernormally stimulating nutrient-poor foods will take a lot longer to overcome, so the cravings can be intense. In fact, many participants have reported craving-driven dreams about off-plan foods – some so intensely real, they wake up feeling guilty. Talk about an unhealthy psychological response!

Since you’ve removed many of the dense carbohydrates from your diet (like sugars, grains, and legumes), your body can no longer rely on those sugars as a primary energy source. That often leads to “withdrawal” symptoms like headaches, lethargy, and crankiness- the “carb flu” as your body adjusts to its new fuel source. Ease off your physical activity this week-don’t take part in any big races or events, and don’t expect to set any personal bests in the gym. Your body is desperately trying to recalibrate during this first critical week, so give it the time, space, and rest it needs to do so.

You may see a significant change in your body as you shed excess water weight and the incumbent bloating. Don’t get too excited: This probably doesn’t represent much true fat loss-it’s just your body’s way of letting go of some of the physical effects of your old eating.

Days 8 to 14:

Most people report that their “carb flu” symptoms are gone by the very end of the second week. During this week, most people report falling asleep faster, sleeping better, and more consistent energy levels. At this point, your body is already more efficient at using fat (dietary and body fat) as fuel. Once your metabolism has become “fat adapted,” you’ll notice that your energy levels are much more stable than they ever were with processed foods and an incessant influx of sugar.

However, although you are starting to feel better, the healing process takes much longer than a week or two. Digestive distress in common and may take a few months to completely resolve. The inflammation-causing foods you’ve been eating have been like sandpaper in your digestive tract for all the years you’ve been eating them. Remove all of them, and your digestive tract starts to heal-but the healing process can be unpleasant. Constipation or diarrhea, cramps, bloating, gas and general discomfort are common, and are all a normal part of the process, as your intestinal lining starts to repair itself, some gut bacteria die off, and the extra thick protective layer of mucosal lining starts to slough off.

If you’ve dramatically increased your fruit and vegetable intake, that could also be playing a role in your digestive distress. Try eating more cooked vegetables than raw and having more frequent, smaller serving of fruit throughout the day, as opposed to one or two larger serving. In addition, if you’re relying too heavily on nuts and seeds, you may find digestive relief from swapping those for fats like avocado, coconut, and olive oil.

We know this part isn’t fun, but ride it out. It gets better quickly, we promise, and once your digestive tract has healed. It will be happier and healthier than it has been in years.

Days 15 to 30:

Much of what happens during this time depends on your health history and habits. You may notice improvement in ailments-skin clearing up, allergies diminishing, joints no longer aching. Most people are sleeping well and are energetic and attentive throughout their day. Your gym or sports performance may take an upturn, and you may find that your mental focus and physical coordination are better. And you’ll probably notice that your clothes are fitting differently by this point, too.

Your taste buds should also be waking up right about now, allowing you to truly appreciate the flavors found in the fresh foods you’re eating. But you may also be getting a little bored with your food if you relied on the same basic “go-to” meals for the first two weeks. There are plenty of sites on the internet now if you don’t want to purchase a cookbook yet.

During this time, you also may start thinking, “I’m really feeling better now-two weeks is probably enough.” We call this the “bright, shiny, toy” mentality-the novelty of the program has worn off, but your still weeks away from completion. Time to snap to attention-don’t get lazy or let your guard down! Now is the perfect time to experiment with new foods, new spices and herbs, and more exotic dishes-and draft a few strategies to combat the sugar dragon when it unexpectedly roars back to life in your brain. (And we’re sorry to say, it probably will.)

Even if you haven’t achieved all the results you’d hoped to by the twenty-ninth day, hang on: you cannot reasonably expect to completely reverse decades of poor eating habits in just thirty days. At some point, we promise …..The magic will happen. In the meantime, be patient, don’t ease up on your hard won discipline, and focus on all the things that have improved in your life since starting Paleo—that should supply all the motivation you need to keep up the good work. But we’ll caution you now….

There is no magic number.

You don’t have to abandon your efforts just because you’ve done your thirty days. If after a month, your tastes have yet to change, you’re still craving all you “old” foods, if you’re still a slave to the sugar dragon, or if you haven’t noticed a significant improvement in a particular factor that was important to you at the beginning of this program… please consider sticking with it for a little while longer. You’ve already put in a month of reconditioning your body and brain, keep going!

  • It is not hard. Please don’t tell us this program is hard. Quitting heroin is hard. Beating cancer is hard. Birthing a baby is hard. Drinking your coffee black. Is. Not. Hard you have no excuse not to complete the program as written. It’s for the most important health cause on earth—the only physical body you will ever have in this lifetime.
  • Don’t even consider the possibility of a “slip.” Unless you physically trip and your face lands in a box of donuts, there is no such thing as a “slip”. You make a choice to eat something unhealthy. It is always a choice. So don’t talk as if you had an accident. Own it. Commit to Paleo 100 percent. Don’t give yourself an excuse to fail before you have even started.
  • You never, ever, ever have to eat anything you don’t want to eat. You’re all big boys and girls. Toughen up. Learn to say no (or make your mom proud and say, “No, thank you”.) Learn to stick up for yourself. Just because it’s your sister’s birthday, or your best friend’s wedding, or your company picnic does not mean you have to eat anything. It’s always a choice, and we would hope that you stopped succumbing to peer pressure in seventh grade.
  • You can do this. You’ve come too far to back out now. You want to do this. You need to do this. And we know that you can do this. So stop thinking, and start doing.